• Cannabis news

  • History of computer science timeline

    history of computer science timeline Every computer supports some form of input processing and output. Explore the history and evolution of the science of computing through this beautiful timeline. The first evidence of counting is dated back around 50 000 B. Developed further with the help of The next major milestone in the history of the computer occurred in the 19th century. beads on rods to count and calculate. 1943 quot I think there is a world market for maybe five computers. 1960s. The history of alcohol and humans is at least 30 000 and arguably 100 000 years long. Jul 07 2009 Explore the history of war and weapons with our timeline of weapons technology. May 09 2013 Already seventy years ago we encounter the first attempts to quantify the growth rate in the volume of data or what has popularly been known as the information explosion a term first used in Dec 10 2013 The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client the U. Cellphones 1973 Robert Metcalfe figures out a simple way of linking computers together that he names Ethernet. 25. The power of three will set us free from everything but drama. The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today that surf the Internet play games and stream multimedia in Emergence of a discipline Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace. A timeline from the first computer The Turing Machine to the 1970 39 s. The abacus is still in use today in China and Japan. Mar 05 2019 Updated March 05 2019. Nintendo s Shigeru Miyamoto creates Donkey Kong and introduces the world to an Italian plumber called Jumpman later renamed Mario. Mathematics Professor George Forsythe deceased 1972 Provost Fred Terman and Associate Provost Albert Bowker conceived of a scientific escalation of computing at Stanford from the Computer Center function to an academic teaching and research function. m. The Atanasoff Berry Computer ABC was the world s first electronic digital computer. Entertainment Jun 2 2015 Explore Dianne Herrmann 39 s board quot Past amp Present Technology quot on Pinterest. quot A Brief History of Human Computer Interaction Technology. Woman at a computer in the 1970s. 10 Important Events in Computer History See more History timelines. A Jul 31 2016 An exhibition at London 39 s Science Museum looks at the history of computer games and how they have developed. The major elements of computing hardware implement abstractions input 5 output 6 memory 7 and processor. The earliest examples we have of humans storing and analyzing data are the tally sticks. A complete history of computing would include a multitude of diverse devices such as the ancient Chinese abacus the Jacquard loom 1805 and Charles Babbage 39 s analytical engine 39 39 1834 . 1970. Duration of lesson 40 Be curious about computer history and appreciate the computers they use everyday. Computer History Computers are made up of many parts and each one of them is a unique invention on its own. CORC can be described on a single page. Utah computer science department founded Bresenham Algorithm for plotting lines Ref nbsp 2003 at 87 began teaching Stanford 39 s 1st programming course Math 139 Theory and Operation of Computing Machines. R who coined it. Developments that took place in the discipline over the years are what we know as computer science. What follows are some key dates in the timeline of astronomy 32 500 BCE During the Upper Paleolithic period early people would keep track of the Moon s phases by engraving lines onto animal bones and it has also been suggested that they might similarly have memorialized certain star patterns in the same way. The World wide web was invented by Sir Timothy John quot Tim quot Berners Lee an engineer and computer scientist from Great Britin working as a professor at MIT and CERN Laboratory. 13 Apr 2020 The ARPANET Project. 1969 ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency goes online in December connecting four major U. History of computers 1973 Martin Cooper develops the first handheld cellphone mobile phone . Invention Timelines. Programming Languages A full list of programming languages listed in alphabetical order along with their definitions and meanings. Computer history. Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science Technical Report CMU CS 96 163 and Human Computer Interaction Institute Technical Report CMU HCII 96 103 December 1996. To be precise the Merriam Webster dictionary defines mathematics as The science of numbers and their operations interrelations combinations generalization Two centuries of technology and culture. Modern Computers are electronic complex and interactive but can be reduced to simple input output processing devices. All your contacts and companies 100 free. May 05 2015 I believe that it is fundamental to have an overview of the history that later formed Computer Science. These innovations are the technologies that computer scientists had a direct hand in developing. The history of the solving of these problems is the history of the computer. Facts about Computer History 7 The Father of Computing. The University of Maryland is one of the world s premier research institutions. CSF Bad Weather Make up Day Will be used as needed to reschedule contest activities affected by weather. presidents. History and Evolution of Computers and Software. 1936 Nov 11 2000 The History of Computer Science See more Science and Technology timelines. Alan Turing Alan Turing was an English mathematician who is often referred to as the father of modern computer science 3 . Java was originally designed for interactive television but it was too advanced technology for the digital cable television industry at the time. For education History of Computer Science . Ancient History of Data. The Department of Defense decided to make the 50kbs ARPANET obsolete. It was the first programming language that utilized algorithms according to the Computer History Museum. Computer Science Fair in Building E 1 00 p. This is for the homework 8 assignment in USU CS 1030. This was a very Computer Science amp Engineering Timeline. quot Keller felt that women should be involved in computer science and especially in the field of information specialist. Technology Timeline Poster Set is a great way to incorporate history with technology. Learn about three nbsp Tejas In Scratch programming the computer takes the blocks one by one and executes them. came up with an application called Hypercard for the Macintosh. A BRIEF COMPUTER HISTORY. SFC 4 14 03 p. Please note many of the technologies are difficult to attribute and historical dates are often approximate. 30 000 B. John von Neumann a famous person in the history of computer science. The beginning of computing devices is not captured in historical books as Using a timeline learn about the development of the Internet the World Wide Web nbsp Computer Timeline. Information. The 5100 came with a 1. Most experts put its beginnings in the late 60s and early 70s. g. Science Timelines Science Timelines . A History of Computer Programming Languages Ever since the invention of Charles Babbage s difference engine in 1822 computers have required a means of instructing them to perform a specific task. Note This product cont This course focuses on one particular aspect of the history of computing the use of the computer as a scientific instrument. In 1973 Jerre proposed the establishment of a Department of Computer Science and the introduction of an undergraduate major program. The ancient Greeks had myths about robots and Chinese and Egyptian engineers built automatons. These earliest computers used technology called vacuum tubes which were essentially just like filament light bulbs. 1605. 500 BC Bead and wire abacus originates in nbsp 21 Oct 2019 Computer science sometimes called computation science or computing. Earliest devices The many pieces that make up AI have been built and used for thousands of years in many cultures. 1952. Timeline research by Bob Carlson Angela Burgess and Christine Miller. The history is divided into four epochs pre history infancy childhood and adolescence. 1940s. Most computers hooked up to the Internet now use it. A Timeline of Milestones 1957 Fortran 1962 Cobol 1964 BASIC 1970 Pascal 1973 C and the Unix operating system 1975 First interactive PC Xerox PARC 39 s Alto 1980 Ada 1980 Smalltalk 1985 C 1986 Objective C 1987 Perl 1989 90 The Web is born Applied computer science on the other hand deals with issues like Artificial Intelligence computer graphics and computer security which can be put to practical use in real life situations. 1600. Schally and Roger Guillemin won the Nobel prize for their contributions in the field of medicine. Science 265 676 9 History Since the beginning of experimental psychology in computer. See more ideas about Technology timeline Technology History. 1613. History of Computer Science Timeline created by kahlebrown. History of computers. With our strategic location and scores of partnerships with government and businesses UMD conducts groundbreaking research on some of the biggest challenges facing our global community including cybersecurity and terrorism bioengineering public health equity food safety and climate Feb 11 2017 Read this history of music and find a timeline of milestones in the music industry dating from 325 to the present day 325 Constantine declares Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. A typical machine of the era was UNIVAC see 1951. Tim Berners Lee a British scientist invented the World Wide Web WWW in 1989 while working at CERN. In the piece quot Green is the New Normal quot Copman nods to the university 39 s covid related marker of health but also notes how faculty quot have had to Bloomberg delivers business and markets news data analysis and video to the world featuring stories from Businessweek and Bloomberg News on everything pertaining to technology Oct 09 2020 Timeline of Environmental Understanding Research 5 important data points in the history of environmental understanding with a goal of representing the diverse contributions to this field by gender age culture religion race ethnicity ability and age. He was famous due to his concept and invention of the Analytical Engine. Charmed which premiered on The WB in 1998 made headlines from the start as Aaron Spelling hired Shannen Doherty to play one of the three Halliwell sisters four years after she was infamously let go from Spelling Television s Beverly Robert Dennard was the inventor of a type of computer memory called ram patented in 1968. In addition see the articles computer science and supercomputer. He designed the Analytical Engine and it was this design that the basic framework of the computers of today are based on. 9MHz processor and 16 64 KB of RAM. Plenum Pub. See more ideas about Technology Tech history Computer history. The history of computer science began centuries ago. In 1951 an machine known as Ferranti Mark 1 successfully used an algorithm to master Apr 28 2010 A historical timeline of the first electromechanical television to 3D TV. R. 2000s. 1980. It becomes the first mass produced calculator and sells for. Mar 15 2017 History of the Department. 1960s Feb 21 2017 The computer age began when ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator was completed in 1945. ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer the first electronic general purpose computer designed by John Mauchly and J. Numerical notation arithmetical computations counting rods Bloomberg delivers business and markets news data analysis and video to the world featuring stories from Businessweek and Bloomberg News on everything pertaining to technology Dec 18 2000 The earliest general purpose stored program electronic digital computer to work was built in Newman 39 s Computing Machine Laboratory at Manchester University. Department offices and facilities are located in Polya and Pine Halls in the Jordan Quad. The first computer was located in a research lab at UCLA and the second was Nov 22 2016 In 1962 MIT computer scientist J. Software fo This brief timeline outlines some of the most important events in punk music history from the sixties to today. The Deskpro 386 had a 32 bit microprocessor. com 47544 history of a i artificial intelligence infographic. Atomic theory Timeline Cell In c. Music History and facts about the first mechanical sound recording devices to the iPod Touch. Processes. io In this video we ll be discussing the evolution of computing m The computer mouse makes its public debut during a demonstration at a computer conference in San Francisco. Need Homework And assignment help related computer science contact our chat support. quot Slide Rules the Pascaline and Leibniz 39 s Machine. 1961 The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. CORC is taught beginning in Fall 1962. Watch it. Before the idea of contemporary computer science discipline begins the roots developed. S. A Timeline of Database History Ancient Times. Forensic science Timeline Timeline Description Forensic science is the application of science and technology to investigate criminal acts. He later shares his idea with colleagues at the U. One of the great discoveries in the history of writing is dated to around 1700 BC. Vocational Education History Welding History Timelines Agriculture and Food Technology Timeline AlternaTime Tech Science Arts Culture Timelines Art History Timeline Educational Technology Timeline Electricity and Magnetism Timeline Farm Machinery Timeline Greek Medicine Timeline Historical Timelines Wikipedia Media History Timeline 1830s Geological Periods The main geological periods are identified and named. Heavy metal is one of the newer genres of music. It was called UNIMATE. This area of science once prone to numerous errors and misinterpretation is now one of the most important pieces of a case in modern law. Tukey writes in The Future of Data Analysis For a Read A Brief History of Software Engineering by Niklaus Wirth to experience it for yourself. All computer software depends on and is created with some form of programming language. Jan 02 2014 The history of computer system dated back to the 17 th century. Dick Conway and Bill Maxwell of Operations Research and Industrial Engineering develop CORC on the Burroughs B 220 and Control Data 1604 to provide a simpler language for teaching than Fortran or Algol. The Sumerians abacus consisted of a table of successive columns which delimited the successive orders of magnitude of their sexagesimal number system. In 1939 he and his student Clifford Berry began building the Atanasoff Berry Computer See full list on study. Licklider comes up with the idea for a global computer network. The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in In 1946 a model for computer architecture was introduced and became known as Von Neumann Timeline of Computer History nbsp Goal Learn about some key events in Computer History. George together with mathematics professor Jack Herriot deceased 2003 founded the Division of Computer Science within the Mathematics Department in 1961. Jul 03 2019 The transistor is an influential little invention that changed the course of history in a big way for computers and all electronics. Objectives Be curious about computer history and appreciate the computers they use everyday. A timeline of computer interface milestones A Timeline of Computer History Live Science is part of Future US Inc an international media group and leading digital publisher. Its original configuration came with 4 kb of RAM but a year later this was increased to 48 kb of RAM and the cassette drive was replaced by a floppy disk drive. The 1800s. The IBM 650 which starts up in 1961 is the first computer in New Zealand. in the world not MIT . In Science and Technology. Results 1 24 of 15088 Browse history of computers resources on Teachers Pay Teachers Computer Science Technology Other Social Studies History . The IEEE Computer Society traces its origins to the 1946 formation of the Subcommittee on Large Scale Computing Devices LCD of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers AIEE . Triumph of the Nerds Online companion to the PBS series Teaching computers to play chess and maximize values would lead to innovation in both computer science and economics. In 1843 she published a sequence of steps to perform using a computing machine designed by her friend Charles Babbage. Char Science Timelines. The institution received a Royal Charter in 1828 formally recognizing civil engineering as a profession. Invented by Blaise Pascal 1623 62 . Also I 39 m combining the history of data science to some developments on computer science machine Hopefully this timeline will give you an idea of the history of the nbsp 23 Jul 2015 When did computer science become an industry that would change history Was it was Alan Turing and his Turing Machine during World War II nbsp 28 Jul 2011 Here is a short history of programming languages complete with some For most programmers computing really did all start with Fortran and nbsp Computer Science Standards Timeline. I understand that the timeline will go up on a wall somewhere. Only prestigious Anyoha SITN Figure 2 AI timeline https www. When sounded out correctly the letters would produce words in ancient Semitic. Due to the amount of time chemistry takes up on the timeline the science is split into four general chronological categories. We cannot recreate the artistic experience of the actual sun lit graphic panels nbsp While employed at Atomic Energy Labs in Chalk River future CS prof and head of the UBC Computing Centre Jim Kennedy writes the technical manual for the nbsp The history of computer science is a prolific one spread across several centuries. Jun 07 2011 British inventor Clive Sinclair enters the home computer market with the ZX80. mathematics computer science as well as notable science educators The Department of Computer Science is created in January within the School of Humanities and Sciences with George Forsythe as chair. The male washing of the programming industry actually mirrors filmmaking in this way. Lesson Introduction Today we can not imagine our world without computers. As a scientist he co discovered plutonium 238 and 239 as well as nine other elements beyond uranium in the periodic table and was an adviser on national science policy to 10 U. A timeline created with Timetoast 39 s interactive timeline maker. and income not to pleasures and parties but to experiments science and philosophy. The 1950s also saw the birth of Computer programming languages. The Abacus. The Univac the first commercially successful electronic digital computer is completed. Timeline of Computer Science PDF file of the history of computer science from 4000 B. Operating systems OS provide a set of functions needed and used by most applications and provide the necessary linkages to control a computer 39 s hardware. 1614 John Napier a Scottish mathematician and physicist designed Napier s bones an abacus like device used for calculations including multiplication and division. Specific sponsors involved will be notified. com This is a timeline of women in science spanning from ancient history up to the 21st century. 1000. Computers Conceived in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation this credit card sized computer features ease of use and simplicity making it highly popular with students and hobbyists. May 07 2008 Initial Computer Science Center building completed. programs in computer science. Early examples of nanostructured materials were based on craftsmen s empirical understanding and manipulation of materials. Commodore Business Machines introduces the VIC 20 8 bit home computer. An online exhibit and digital library documenting computer science history at the University of Utah. This article covers major developments in the history of computing hardware and attempts to put them in context. org. It s hard to imagine scientists looking for the Higgs Boson with nothing more than typewriters and 1959 Computer assisted manufacturingg was demonstrated at the Servomechanisms Lab at MIT. Jul 07 2019 The universal language in which computers carry out processor instructions originated in the 17th century in the form of the binary numerical system. 1900. This timeline features a number of historic events of the past as well as recent developments that have helped shape the world of robots and technology in general. After its record five year run as YouTube s most played vi A timeline of the history of alcohol when it was first developed and how it expanded into an important social element of modern culture. A 25 question quiz based on Computer History Processing Cycle and How Computers are Used in Business and Society. That s not the only difference. In 1981 IBM released their first PC nbsp 1 Jul 2019 History. This timeline includes births and deaths of famous computer pioneers inventions discoveries dates when computer companies were established when popular websites came online and much more. The quest to add intelligence to objects we create also known as Artificial Intelligence or AI goes back to ancient China Egypt and Greece as well as Renaissance Europe and the Ottoman Empire. John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly after leaving the academic environment of The Moore School of Engineering to start their own computer business found their first client was the United States Census Bureau. Alcohol a flammable liquid produced by the natural fermentation of sugars Explore the convoluted history of blogging how it got to where it is and where it s going next. This article presents a detailed timeline of events in the history of computing from 2010 to 2019. Facts about Computer History 8 Henry Edward Roberts. e. The Macintosh was the first computer to utilize a mouse. This account is a condensation and updating of two articles by John R. In some cases this mathematics has spread from one culture to another. He is a Since digital computers rely on digital storage and tend to be limited by the size and speed of memory the history of computer data storage is tied to the development of computers. History of Computers Atanasoff Berry Computer ABC It was the first electronic digital computing device. Sales software for closing more deals faster. DEFINITION. Invented by Professor John Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry at Iowa State University between 1939 and 1942. The 1950s were a time of tremendous growth for both HP and the city of Palo Alto. We were founded in 1957 and have had a long and prestigious history. Science and Technology. Which came first laser or fluorescent light When was sliced bread invented Find timelines of the history of inventions from the Middle Ages to the 21st century complete with detailed articles and photos. Computer History Time Line Timeline of Events in Computer History Computer Museums History Sites Generations Through the History of Computing Take a tour of companies and computers have led us to where we are today. To know History is to know life. The Sinai inscriptions were found in the Sinai peninsula and they were about 20 feet apart. 1981. quot Aug 28 2017 Amazing history of AI We know that Artificial Intelligence is a computer science that develops programs to mimic human intelligence. The idea of inanimate objects coming to life as intelligent beings has been around for a long time. Jun 06 2018 The History of Computer Science Today s infographic comes to us from Computer Science Zone and it describes the journey of how we got to today s tech oriented consumer society. Timeline of computing presents events in the history of computing organized by year and grouped into six topic areas predictions and concepts first use and inventions hardware systems and processors operating systems programming languages and new application areas. First in the historical record was the abacus helping the ancient technorati gain an edge over trading partners still counting cows and amphorae by hand. quot nbsp 6 Jun 2018 Condensing 300 years of the history of computer science into one infographic. The computer as we know it today had its beginning with a 19th century English mathematics professor name Charles Babbage. Read Peter Calingaert 39 s 1994 historical record Growth of a Department middot Bibliography middot Report a Website Issue middot Internal Resources A complete history of computers including important events inventions people and technology that contributed to the evolution of the modern computer. Science Timelines. The electronic digital computer was invented to do science and its applications range from physics to mathematics to biology to the humanities. 2004 In January a computer worm called MyDoom or Novarg spreads through emails and file sharing software faster than any previous virus or worm. If it is about personal computer term it was Henry E. Increasingly timelines are illustrated in infographics The IBM 5100 is recognised as the first example of a truely portable computer. Researchers Allen Newell and Herbert Simon were instrumental in promoting AI as a field of computer science that could transform the world. History of Computers Long Long Ago. How to make a nbsp 2 May 1996 1951 Maurice. Though the term computer was not used then. They took a machine that was unreachable to most people and they put it down on their level this changed the face of the world. similar timeline using documentary study on the history of computer science. 1977 Apple II computer model was released also based on the 6502 processor but it had color graphics a first for a personal computer and used an audio cassette drive for storage. and Ph. Here are some of th It took time for us to learn as much as we know about ADHD today. Rama Rao Professor of Computer Science Ken Birman is profiled along with a handful of other Cornell faculty to discuss teaching in Fall 2020. Feb 11 2017 Read about milestones advancements and major breakthroughs in the development of the Internet. Visit our corporate site. C. 1964 May 16 2017 By 2011 the percentage of women in computer science programs had fallen to 17 . livescience. Braden Hendricks. 1962 John W. Computer Science History You might like History of the development of computer. computinghistory. The abacus the first automatic computer is the earliest known tool of computing It was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BCE. Were enormous and very expensive. The word digital comes from quot digits quot or fingers. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention th Heavy metal is one of the newer genres of music. See the bibliography below. Aug 02 2020 William Gilbert coins the term electricity from the Greek word elecktra. CSAIL has its roots in two MIT computing powerhouses The Laboratory for Computer Science LCS and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AI Lab . Computer networks Internet 1974 Completed in 1951 Whirlwind remains one of the most important computer projects in the history of computing. Working under Tom Kilburn at England s Manchester University Richard Grimsdale and Douglas Webb demonstrate a prototype transistorized computer the quot Manchester TC quot on November 16 1953. Jun 18 2014 1955 Edward O. The list is presented below with the innovations directly attributable to computer science in bold. Beginning Alan Turing and the Turing machine. uk cgi computingtimeline. Event. Jun 10 2019 With a leap in computer technology the fifth generation of video games ushered in the three dimensional era of gaming. Computers have come a long way since a laptop today can do 500 000 000 additions per second. Foremost among its developments was Forrester s perfection of magnetic core memory which became the dominant form of high speed random access memory for computers until the mid 1970s. Human beings began to store information very long ago. 2015 National Academy of Sciences member Maurice Brookhart joins NSM as a professor of chemistry. Aiken 1900 1973 built the Mark I electromechanicalcomputerin 1944 with the assistance of IBM. It was the first known geared mechanism to use a differential gear which was later used in analog computers. Since the beginning humans have always tried to explain their environment and when it involved the ocean it became part of marine science. AtHarvard Howard H. The Manchester Baby as it became known was constructed by the engineers F. Every culture on earth has developed some mathematics. Computer Science and Engineering Timeline You can review all the cause and effect relations of timeline Create Public Timelines Library FAQ. 14 Aug 2019 I 39 ll discuss the future of data science here and now. We may earn commission on some of the items you choose to buy. Thorp conceives of the first wearable computer a cigarette pack sized analog device used for the sole purpose of predicting roulette wheels. Computer scientists may work in software development that involves designing of games search engines operating systems and web browsers. Developed by German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz the system came about as a way to represent decimal numbers using only two digits the number zero and the number one. Rice and Saul Rosen in the book Studies in Computer Science In honor of Samuel D. Apple II the first personal computer went on sale. This section contains a chronological listing of relevant climate science discoveries and events related to anthropogenic global warming. Jan 1 1837. In this term he plans for the Lawrence Hall of Science and creates the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics. . 412006. Every item on this page was chosen by a Woman s Day editor. The 48 bit machine used 92 point contact transistors and 550 diodes. The city s population more than doubled during the decade and the fruit orchards that characterized the town in the past were cleared to make way for highways businesses and schools. All of the computer science people in Mathematics move to the new department. The term is also sometimes extended to mean a chronology that is tabular year by year paragraphs or purely conceptual. History of Computers Computer Timeline. First FBI Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory established The FBI Laboratory Seal 2003 . During the early days of nbsp HISTORY OF COMPUTER Evolution of computer is a study of past development of computer i. Apr 08 2013 English www domain internet web net Photo credit Wikipedia If you were asked to name the top three events in the history of computer technology or the history of what came to be known as the The first computer programming language was created in 1883 when a woman named Ada Lovelace worked with Charles Babbage on his very early mechanical computer the Analytical Engine. Each of these epochs is examined from the perspective of the people involved the 500 BC Babylonian Astronomy Using arithmetic to predict the heavens The Babylonians introduce mathematical calculation as a way to find the behavior of planets and a few other systems in nature. In this timeline we will take a look at many of these parts and how they contributed to the computers we have today. 1830 Difference engine Printing mathematical tables by machine Charles Babbage constructs a machanical computer to automate the creation of mathematical knowledge. These notes are considered the first computer program. Marketing software to increase traffic and leads. Slide Rule. It has been about 50 years since the first operational computer was put into use the MARK 1 in 1944 at Harvard and ENIAC in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. We hate 2020 Just when we thought 2020 couldn 39 t get any worse We were about to re open after many months of being closed but then disaster struck when a mains water pipe burst and flooded much of the ground floor of the museum. John Vincent Atanasoff a former Iowa State professor of physics and mathematics and Clifford Berry a former physics graduate student and electrical engineering undergraduate built the computer at Iowa State University from 1937 to 1942. Census Bureau in 1951. ARPANET was replaced by NSFNET The National Science Foundation 39 s Network . The spread of Christianity in the western world spurred the development of European music. It includes a timeline of computer technology an artifact database a document archive nbsp Lawrence Landweber creates CSNET Computer Science Network a network for all US university and industrial computer research groups. A Brief History of Computing Summary Timeline Stephen White quot Computer quot was originally a job title it was used to describe those human beings predominantly women whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables tide charts and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. Museum of Play. To 1996. Professor John Atanasoff Atanasoff Berry Computer Jul 17 2019 Lawrence Landweber establishes the Computer Science Network CSNET with the intention of connecting all US universities and industrial computer research groups. Timeline created by CAMINO amp LOLIGO. Bloomberg delivers business and markets news data analysis and video to the world featuring stories from Businessweek and Bloomberg News on everything pertaining to technology The development in technology have transformed the huge expensive computer into a small yet more powerful smartphones faster tablets and wearable gadgets of today. Hope you guys enjoy and make sure to subscribe and like Adding subtitles for our vide INTERPOL Forensic Science Symposium 1999 . This idea of punched data storage was later adapted for computer data input. A. A Chronology of Computer History 3000 BC Dust abacus is invented probably in Babylonia. But there are several individuals who led Origins. Computer Science Timeline History of computer science from 1939 to 1994. I. Created by Some History Timelines In Computer Science Mathematics And Statistics . 62 million to the Computer Science Center. This week is Computer Science Education Week and to kick things off the World Science Festival celebrates the long history of man s best friend the computer. The Universal Automatic Computer or UNIVAC was a computer milestone achieved by Dr. Norman 89. Apple introduced 8 bit home computers designed by Steve Wozniak. A 11th STD Student present his video here. Rice eds. Includes eight different images for audio storage computer telephone and camera timelines. That history is covered in this section and links are provided to entries on many of the individuals and companies mentioned. Enjoy the videos and music you love upload original content and share it all with friends family and the world on YouTube. 1988 Steve Jobs releases the NeXT Cube. HW8 History. Rosalyn Yalow Andrew V. Computer history B. Roman schools taught finger counting and actually devised methods of doing multiplication and division on their fingers. DeMillo and J. This computer had 8 MB of RAM and a magneto optical disk drive. Getting Serious About AI Research. 1950s. This is less obvious on a primitive device such as the abacus where input output and processing are simply the act of moving the pebbles into new positions seeing the changed positions and counting. History 1959 1969 History 1970 1979 History 1980 1989 History 1990 1999 History 2000 Present Acknowledgments Photo Gallery 1972 The KDF9 computer is retired from service and replaced by an ICL 1906A installed in a new specially designed building in Elms Road. While the timeline primarily focuses on women involved with natural sciences such as astronomy biology chemistry and physics it also includes women from the social sciences e. sociology psychology and the formal sciences e. In the Computer Hope computer history timeline you 39 ll find a detailed listing of key events that have occurred during the evolution of computers the Internet and related technologies. Throughout history humans have added to this body of knowledge about the oceans so that today we have a huge body of knowledge to draw from including many laws observations and reasonings. 1991. CSG acquired a Scientific Data Systems Sigma 5 computer in 1969 and housed it in Wilcox Hall. A computer is an electronic machine that accepts information stores it processes it according to the instructions provided by a user and then returns the result. In June 2017 we nbsp 5 Feb 1996 and the Computer Society the timeline on the following pages traces the Science. Video Game History Timeline. John Mauchly the team that invented the ENIAC computer . Charles Babbage is often regarded as one of the first pioneers of computing. Conte R. Apple History Timeline Timeline Description The Apple computer helped change the way that people functioned around the world. Timeline of Computing History o commemorate the 50th year of modern computing and the Computer Society the timeline on the following pages traces the evolution of computing and computer technology. Approved by the State Board of Education on January 17 2017 and revised July 6 2017. Early 1600s William Oughtred an English clergyman invented the slide rule Early example of an analog computer. Paleolithic peoples in Europe record numbers by notching tallies on bones ivory and stone. Menu. A historical timeline of the first mechanical and electronic computers to modern day computers. During 1842 1849 Ada Lovelace translated the memoir of Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea about Charles Babbage 39 s newest proposed machine the Analytical Engine she supplemented the memoir with notes that specified in detail a method for calculating Bernoulli numbers with the engine recognized by most of historians as the world 39 s first published computer program. In an article by Linda Copman N. How to make a timeline The History of Computer Science Timeline created by natacha. 1994. Early Computation. 1643 Blaise Pascal creates a machine that can add and subtract in other words a basic calculator 1820 Mar 01 2009 Computer has become an indispensable and multipurpose tool. timeline A timeline is the presentation of a chronological sequence of events along a drawn line that enables a viewer to understand temporal relationships quickly. It shows a history of activities you ve performed and can even synchronize activities across your PCs. 1986 Compaq was the first to launch a computer with an Intel 80386 chip in it. The History Of Computer Programming. The Rancho Arm was designed as a tool for the handicapped and it 39 s six joints gave it the flexibility of a human arm. 50 From Gutenberg to the Internet presents 63 original readings from the history of computing networking and telecommunications arranged thematically by chapters. The loom too weaves line by line in a sequence the design on the nbsp Home Search Indexes Equivalents Articles Adverts amp Boxes Timeline Collections Donate The computer hardware provides the capability to perform computing related tasks. 12 Oct 2010 2014 NIST and the University of Maryland established Joint Center for Quantum Information in Computer Science. Input. It may surprise you to learn that the humble and abstract groundwork of what we now call computer science goes all the way back to the beginning of the 18th century. We may earn commission if you buy from a link. com id 3fc678 ZDdiN Atari releases its Video Computer System VCS later renamed the Atari 2600. Artificial Intelligence Infographic Live Science is part of Future US Inc an international media group and leading digital publisher. The Regents approved the establishment of the Department of Computer Science an inter college unit reporting to both the Dean of Arts amp Sciences and the Dean of Engineering in September 1974 and the undergraduate major was launched at the start of the 1975 76 academic year. Sep 17 1995 A brief outline of the history of Chinese mathematics Primary sources are Mikami 39 s The Development of Mathematics in China and Japan and Li Yan and Du Shiran 39 s Chinese Mathematics a Concise History. Five years later the Institute of Radio Engineers IRE formed its Professional Group on Electronic Computers PGEC . Questioned document analysis was first recorded Tests developed for the forensic analysis of the presence of blood History of the veterinary profession The story of veterinary medicine goes back to Urlugaledinna who lived in 3000 BC in Mesopotamia and was an expert in healing animals . Rice and Saul Rosen . 400 000 BC A new science was required to explain the behavior of electromagnetic objects. Chemistry is a branch of science that has been around for a long time. History of Computer Science. 392003. This timeline depicts key events in the evolution of the CGI discipline. Acorn Computers releases the Acorn Atom home computer. 1933. 500 BC Pythagoras Numbers are the key to nature The Pythagoreans promote the idea that numbers can be used to systematically understand and compute aspects of nature music and the world. 1950. The creation of the agency is an important moment in science history because it led to the creation of the internet we recognize today. Pentathlon and Science Fair are also scheduled on this day. The Cold War was in full swing in the 1950s and the US was worried about the Soviet Union s growing scientific prowess . 1980 1989 The Computer Age and the Modern Internet Even though internet type signals had been transmitted from school to school in decades past the 1980 s are the birth years of Jan 13 2020 In 1996 precisely 50 years after ENIAC was publicly acknowledged by the government the massive computer received its place in history. History of Chemistry . The Surprisingly Long From Gutenberg to the Internet A Sourcebook on the History of Information Technology Edited by Jeremy M. Daniel Sambraus Getty Images Drum memory an early form of computer memory used the drum as a working part with data loaded to the drum. I Pre history The earliest computing device undoubtedly consisted of the five fingers of each hand. 5 Jun 2020 For larger versions of all timeline graphics please click on them they will had the huge advantage of the calculating power of computers. Rheinboldt negotiates a special grant with IBM Corporation for 300 000 to permit purchase of an IBM 7090. Feb 23 2018 The Major Highlights in the History of Forensic Science. Francis Bacon devices the Baconian Cipher a cipher that used A 39 s and B 39 s to encode messages. The VCS used the 8 bit MOS 6507 microprocessor and was designed to be connected to a home television set. Also a History of Computing E. Subject Computer Science Type of Lesson Plan Mega Actual Class teaching Lesson Plan For Computer Teachers Topic History of Computer For More Lesson Plans Click Here Note The Computer Lesson Plan given below is just an example. 1970s. The most recognizable father of computing was Charles Babbage. In October 2013 the one millionth Raspberry Pi was Computer History Timeline Computer Generations MHS TH 28 1st Generation Vacuum tubes Used circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. 1951. This food timeline also notes cookbook releases and cooking tool inventions. You can read History of Computers here. This section will explore the history of the Turing test evaluate its validity describe the current attempts at passing it and conclude with the possible future directions the Turing test solution may take. The drum was a metal cylinder coated with a recordable ferromagnetic m See when some of your favorite foods first hit store shelves in this brief history of food. it is meant by the gradual Subject Computer Science. Contents Computers. The calculations required for ballistics during World War II spurred thedevelopment of the general purpose electronic digital computer. 1990s. Prices ranged from 8 975 19 975. Now there is one predominant international mathematics and this mathematics has quite a history. Year. The first RFC surfaced in April 1969 as a document to define and provide information about computer communications network protocols and procedures. For narratives explaining the overall developments see the History of computing . It would use binary numbers base 2 in which all numbers are expressed with the digits 0 and 1 and its data would be stored in capacitors. The first mathematical or mechanical device that was used for computation of data was found among the Chinese before the Birth of Christ called Abacus. See how we went from Leibniz to the iPhone in such a short nbsp Here we are making the content of our Computer History timeline available on line. We are breathing in the computer age and gradually computer has become such a desire necessity of life that it is difficult to imagine life without it. A Brief History of the Computer For centuries people used the Abacus also called as counting frame is a bamboo frame with beads moving on threads for calculations. Since that beginning metal has grown and Other programming languages quickly follow including ALGOL intended as a universal computer language in 1958 and COBOL in 1959. Brad A. The ability to compute and store data provides us with the ability to tackle problems that would likely be impossible to handle otherwise. English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage is the first to see the need for the programming of computation to be mechanised. 1803 Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier nbsp Listed below is a timeline of the history of computer programming developed nbsp Visit this site for this Computer History Timeline detailing Key dates and events. The 1970s 80s and 90s were characterized by the development of the microprocessor and the evolution of increasingly smaller but powerful computers such as the personal computer and personal digital assistant PDA which ushered in a period of rapid growth in the computer industry. Before Computer Science. lmv. By John R. You can then easily pick up where you left off. 1963 The first artificial robotic arm to be controlled by a computer was designed. C 18 000 BCE. Whether or not they intended to and even when they had no idea they were doing so many punk bands created music and caused events that would shape the face of music. In 1963 nbsp First computer programmer the world 39 s first algorithm for machine computing. See also A Brief History of Computers. Generally speaking computers can be classified into three generations. In the ancient times elaborate database systems were developed by government offices libraries hospitals and business organizations and some of the basic principles of these systems are still being used today. Output. amp ndash A free PowerPoint PPT presentation displayed as a Flash slide show on PowerShow. For a detailed timeline of events see the computing timeline article. In fact chemistry is known to date back to as far as the prehistoric times. The history of Java is very interesting. The Chinese also invented a more sophisticated abacus from around the 2nd century BC known as the Chinese abacus. 1960. Watch full episodes of your favorite HISTORY series and dive into thousands of historical articles and videos. Computer Science. Wilkes originates the concept of micro programming a technique providing an orderly approach to designing a computer system 39 s. This was important because each picture denotes a consonant sound and no word signs are used. 7 of women get a degree in science technology engineering or math compared to 17 of men. Detailed computing timelines before 1950 1950 1979 1980 1989 1990 1999 2000 2009 2010 2019 2020 2029 Computer history of events happening in the 1800s such as the first looms programmed by punch cards telegraphs and the start of the Difference Engine. Two centuries of technology and culture. The role of women in society was gradually polished with the advent of digital age. The machine had a built in 5 inch CRT screen and tape drive. His Difference Engine designed in the 1820s is specifically for building mathematical tables but his later Analytical Engine developed from the 1840s on is a general purpose machine with a program punched on cards. Power Up at the Science Museum. Apr 02 2019 Development of ARPANET started in 1966 and the first two nodes UCLA and SRI Standford Research Institute were connected officially starting ARPANET in 1969. The history of climate science goes back to the early 1900 39 s. NASA awards 2. A Brief History of Human Computer Interaction Technology. 1050 771 BC the south pointing chariot was invented in ancient China. The level of intelligence may range from recognizing patterns in data to deriving insights for problem solving. The first multipurpose computer ENIAC set speed records with an amazing 5 000 additions per second. Gear obsessed editors choose every product we review. Free and premium plans. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. See more Science and Technology timelines. D. Jun 27 2017 This timeline offers a brief history of the Internet s evolution 1965 Two computers at MIT Lincoln Lab communicate with one another using packet switching technology. Millennia of both theoretical and practical testing means that all of the knowledge required for every permutation of hardware and software is now available. Learn about some of the fascinating moments that have helped define the history of robotics. 3 Jun 2016 Timeline of Computer History. History of Computers. 1945 Future The first freely programmable computer was invented by Konrad Zuse Computer progammer use code to write programm and need to use 39 goto 39 statement which is not necessary to write programs. Installed at Treasury to automate the government payroll it is old technology it uses valve circuits and a rotating drum main memory first introduced in 1954 but the 650 widely replaces punch card data processing equipment and is a major industry workhorse world wide. May 28 2013 The following timeline traces the evolution of the term Data Science and its use attempts to define it and related terms. lthough already established as a concept by academics as early as the 1940s it was with the advent of the personal computer that hypertext came out of the cupboard. Grades A Timeline Lesson of the History of Computers amp Related Technology. Jan 10 2012 Main articles History of computing and Timeline of computing 2400 BC 1949 The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus developed in period 2700 2300 BC in Sumer. By 1984 over 180 nbsp John Kopplin 2002. Dec 02 2019 Ted Hoff builds the first single chip computer or microprocessor. Since Wo Starting from A to Z Learn about the history of math and the inventions associated with mathematics. THE HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE. The VCS was the first widely successful video game system selling more than twenty million units throughout the 1980s. A man named Charles Babbage devised a calculating machine known as a 39 calculation engine 39 . Its charter defined civil engineering as Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history A timeline created with Timetoast 39 s interactive timeline maker. 1353 Cybersecurity nbsp In 1950 British mathematician Alan Turing published a paper on computing machinery and Timeline of early AI developments 1950s to 2000 are outside of computer science in fields such as health medicine biology and finance. All programming was done in machine code. edit Pre 1965. See full list on columbia. The Computer History Timeline provides a record of events in the order of their John Backus amp IBM develop the FORTRAN Computer Programming Language nbsp Written in the C programming language UNIX was portable across multiple platforms and became the operating system of choice among mainframes at large nbsp You can understand better if you read the history timeline of computers. 2014 S. To fill you in with all necessary computer knowledge we have gathered a few notable inventions in computer science from the first machine to microchip era. Please cite this work as Brad A. You can change the name class course date duration etc. It would also include discussion of mechanical analog and digital computing architectures. For the remaining innovations computer scientists played an important support role developing control software for technologies like mobile phones This timeline features Premodern example of nanotechnology as well as Modern Era discoveries and milestones in the field of nanotechnology. A1 1955 William nbsp This site provides online resources for the computer history researcher. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA . See more Film timelines. 1850. Login to create quizzes If you are not registered user register here to login . FBI CART case load exceeds 6500 cases examining 782 terabytes of data Did you know the history of computers dates back to the early 1800s Coding can be traced back to the original punch cards used in the textile industry. See more History timelines. The Mark I was first run on 21 June 1948 and paved the way as a universal computer that is truly versatile and can be reprogrammed at will rather than being hard wired for a single particular task. Google released a lot of details about Computers. The mathematical foundations of modern computer science began to be laid by Kurt Akira Nakashima and switching History Timeline Our history and achievements form the basis for our strong tradition of excellence in education and research. The discovery occurred in a lab on the 4th floor of the Science and Research Building 1 in 1987. The first of these universal as opposed to special purpose computers to come into operation was the Small Scale Experimental Machine SSEM at Manchester University which first ran a program on 21 June 1948. FBI CART case load exceeds 2000 cases examining 17 terabytes of data 2000 . It has roots in ancient Egypt and Babylonia then grew rapidly in ancient Greece. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder most commonly diagnosed in children. History of mordern computer. Aug 04 2013 Here is a list of famous women in computing. Mar 25 2019 Significant moments in technological history. History of Computers You can look at the computer as being made of many different inventions or components. This paper outlines the early history of digital forensics from the perspective of an early participant. Computer Science Center moves into its new and permanent building. Browse. Timeline design and production by Larry Bauer. Updated 08 02 2019by Computer Hope. May 24 2000 Actually people who held the job title quot computer one who works with numbers. May 01 2018 Timeline is part of Windows 10 s Task View. Presper Eckert and Dr. Event In Computer History. How we test gear. Here s the history of forensic science timeline to summarize the eventful journey of forensic science till the 20 th century. Here s a timeline of the condition s history. 1822 Charles Babbage 1791 1871 and Ada Augusta The Countess of Lovelace Charles Babbage is known as the Father of the modern computer even though none of his computers worked or were even constructed in their entirety . The role of women in computing is often a question of interest in this fast evolving technology era. The first computers were people That is electronic computers and the earlier mechanical computers were given this name because they nbsp Find out how punch cards became the earliest form of programming and how this technology was used during the United States 39 1890 census. She also established a master 39 s degree program for computer applications in education. 2 Dec 2019 The punched cards it uses to store patterns help to inspire programmable computers. Tim Berners Lee pictured at Feb 25 2015 With Big Data poised to go mainstream this year here s a brief ish look at the long history of thought and innovation which have led us to the dawn of the data age. See more Business timelines. Timeline created by kahlebrown. universities. Williams and Tom Kilburn and performed its first calculation on 21 June 1948. The field of digital forensics is relatively new. In the late 1980s Bill Atkinson an exceptionally gifted programmer working for Apple Computer Inc. Below is the timeline of important computer science events in history from 1950 to 1999. Atomic theory Timeline Cell Feb 11 2017 Infected computer systems have the potential to become spam relay points and spamming techniques are used to mass mail copies of the worm to potential victims. html. 1940. Aug 25 2014 History of A. 5 million gift the largest alumni gift in the university s history which helps fund faculty endowed chairs top of the line teaching labs mentoring and tutoring programs and more. according to your needs. An accidental by product of those theoretical studies was one of the most dramatic economic and social revolutions in the history of the human race. Its inventor Douglas Engelbart of the Stanford Research Institute also demonstrates other user friendly technologies such as hypermedia with object linking and addressing. Research and Innovation. As late as the 1960s mechanical devices such as the Marchant calculator still found widespread application in science and engineering. pl. The Web was originally conceived and developed to meet the demand for automated information sharing between scientists in universities and institutes around the world. Mathematics is the science of numbers. science The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how. Oct 28 2019 On October 29 1969 ARPAnet delivered its first message a node to node communication from one computer to another. For most of the people computer is a machine used for a calculation or a computation but actually it is much more than that. 2010s. Any uncited 1965 1995 history adapted from Art Fleck 39 s histories of the department including quot A Historical Overview of the Computer Science Department at the nbsp 50th Anniversary Timeline. Apr 14 2011 In 1967 the Computer Science Group CSG was formed to offer M. A BRIEF HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AT ILLINOIS 1946 UI faculty attempt to build a computer that can play checkers. The principal volunteer officers of both these groups were designated chairs. While its history may be chronologically short it is complex. It is not a tough task to find famous women in computer science or technology. ALGOL has a profound nbsp Timetoast 39 s free timeline maker lets you create timelines online. Computer History Activity Grades 6 8 Goal Learn about some key events in Computer History Duration of lesson 40 minutes to 1 hour. Early history Computer precursors The abacus Raspberry Pi a credit card size single board computer is released as a tool to promote science education. Visit Our Parent Company EarthOne For Sustainable Living Made Simple https earthone. Myers. Military code breaking also led to computational projects. The abacus generally features a table or tablet with beaded strings. Computers History and facts about the invention of the computer. The information here was compiled by Spencer Weart see links for reference . LCS Among the projects that came out of Project MAC and LCS were time sharing systems like the Compatible Time Sharing System CTSS and Multics which both allowed many users to share the Early history. Posted by They were marketed for people in the computer science industry. The College of Computing amp Informatics CCI is created combining the College of Information Science and Technology the iSchool the Department of Computer Science in the College of Engineering and the Department of Computing and Security Technology in Goodwin College The Center for Hospitality and Sport Management is established Dec 30 2016 1964 Daniel Bobrow completes his MIT PhD dissertation titled Natural Language Input for a Computer Problem Solving System and develops STUDENT a natural language understanding computer According to many people the first computer programmer was the English noblewoman Ada Lovelace. From this time onwards there are references to veterinarians and veterinary practices throughout literature. The Regents approved the establishment of the Department of Computer Science in September 1974 and the undergraduate major was launched at the start of the 1975 76 academic year. Today just 6. The computer is undoubtedly among mankind s most important inventions. People know work of individuals such as Dijkstra. 1943 Scientists Warren McCulloch and Warren Pitts developed the first artificial neuron a mathematical model of a biological neuron. AN OVERVIEW OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING Computer Programmer probably You probably use computers and programs on a daily basis but you might not be aware that the first quot pre computers quot didn 39 t even use electricity or that the first computer programmer was a woman. The UK Computer and Videogame Museum. The History of Robotics. The Microsoft Windows epoch time is set to start on January 1 1601. Aug 06 2019 There are a lot of things that we don t know about the rapid progress of computer development plus the contributions of many scientists that haven t been mentioned in our textbooks. 600 The history of computer operating systems recapitulates to a degree the recent history of computing. 11 Feb 2011 of 150 major events in computer science history i. Acronym for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer the world amp apos s first operational electronic digital computer developed by Army Ordnance to compute World War II ballistic firing tables. For Pentathlon Students this will be coordinated with Task Completion. This means is known as a programming language. edu 1937 Computer Iowa State mathematician and physicist John Atanasoff designed the first electronic digital computer. Jun 01 1997 The history of the modern computer age is a brief one. The history of computing article is a related overview and treats methods intended for pen and paper with or without the aid of tables. For example science and engineering students at many universities around the world would submit their programming assignments to the local computer centre in the form of a stack of cards one card per program line and then had to wait for the program to be queued for processing compiled and executed. Timeline of heavy metal history and significant events from the late 1960s to the present day. 402005. History of Computers 3000 BC to Present. 1980s. The brief history that follows adapted in Keller founded the Computer Science Department there and chaired it for 20 years. A processor is composed of control 8 and Aug 11 2018 Research centres popped up across the United States to explore the potential of AI. Presper Eckert announced in 1946 At first the computer worked The UC San Diego computer science and engineering department receives an 18. Although modern languages don 39 t resemble it in nbsp Computers A Chronological Timeline 60 years of restless evolution in computer science on a A Brief History of Computer Science World Science Festival. The Pascaline. The ARPANET nbsp 28 Mar 2017 1975 2015 Building a timeline of computer and video game history not Computer Science so I tend to focus on the Macro Environment a lot nbsp 28 Aug 2017 In the early 1950s the cost of leasing a computer ran up to 200 000 a month. Check out the preview to see the list of historical technology and pictures this set contains. nbsp 23 Oct 2015 In one timeline of computer history the writer starts way back in with inventing the first computer programming language called COBOL. Computer science is reaching its ultimate potential The biological and technological descendants of humanity are attaining the perfection of computer science. 50 000 B. Oct 02 2020 Computer Science History. Lesson http www. Premodern Examples of Nanotechnologies. According to the Smithsonian ENIAC was the center of attention in the city of Philadelphia as they celebrated being the birthplace of computation. Palo Alto booms. Weighing in at 55 pounds the 5100 was heavy but possible to relocate fairly easily. 1800. history of computer science timeline